Bisphenol A (BPA): The Controversial Chemical and Its Impact

A boy drinking water from plastic bottle of green color with black cap Bisphenol A (BPA)
Bisphenol A (BPA)

Bisphenol A, commonly known as BPA, is a chemical compound. This is extensively used in a wide range of commercial products across various industries. A colorless and soluble compound, primarily employed in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins used for food and beverage containers.

The Reproductive and Hormonal Effects of Bisphenol A (BPA)

Research has demonstrated that Bisphenol A (BPA acts as a reproductive and developmental toxin in animals. It also work as an endocrine disruptor. This means that it can mimic the body’s natural hormones and interfere with their regular functions.

While many associate BPA with hard plastic products such as reusable water bottles, it has found its way into numerous everyday items. It was once common in infant products like baby bottles, baby food containers, and pacifiers, many manufacturers have phased out its use. However, canned food remains a significant source of BPA exposure. The protective plastic liners inside cans often contain BPA, which can leach into the food. Additionally, BPA can be found in shatterproof windows, eyewear, bottle tops, water supply pipes, and more.

Surprisingly, BPA has even infiltrated the paper industry. Thermal receipts, fliers, and certain magazines have been found to contain BPA. Among paper products, thermal receipts are responsible for over 98% of BPA exposure, according to studies.

Differing Perspectives: FDA vs. EPA

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which is generally considered less stringent than its EU counterpart, maintains that normal consumer exposure levels to BPA pose no health risks. The agency’s most recent assessment of the chemical was released in 2014 and supports this stance.

On the other hand, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests that concentrations of BPA associated with negative effects in laboratory animals are similar to those found in sensitive aquatic organisms in their natural environment. It was acknowledged by EPA that over 1 million pounds of BPA are released into the environment annually.

Uncovering the History of Bisphenol A (BPA)

Evidence of BPA’s ability to mimic the human hormone estrogen dates back to the 1930s. However, it was not until 1993 that researchers at Stanford University discovered that minuscule particles of this synthetic chemical could potentially leach out of plastic products and impact environmental health.

In 1991, the World Wildlife Fund organized a meeting of experts from various fields, including wildlife biologists, endocrinologists, and toxicologists. Concluded that numerous synthetic chemicals, including BPA, had been released into the environment, posing a risk to wildlife and humans by disrupting their endocrine systems.

Bisphenol A (BPA) Exposure: Prevalence and Concerns

A study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 2004 revealed that BPA was detected in 93% of individuals aged six and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. More recently, a study involving 94 teenagers from southwestern England found traces of BPA in the systems of 86% of participants, even after avoiding BPA products for seven consecutive days.

garbage in bin over flowing Bisphenol A (BPA)
garbage bin

Responding to public concerns about widespread exposure, the FDA partnered with researchers in 2012 to initiate the Consortium Linking Academic and Regulatory Insights on BPA Toxicity (CLARITY-BPA) study. This seven-year, $30 million project involved experiments on 3,800 rats. However, concerns were raised about the study’s invasive daily testing method, which involved dosing rats with chemicals through oral gavage, potentially causing stress and influencing the results.

In 2018, when the FDA released its report on the core study, they found that the effects of lower BPA doses were not consistently responsive and did not demonstrate a clear pattern within or across organs. However, other scientists involved in the study published their own findings. One study revealed that BPA could alter gene expressions in the developing brains of newborn rats, even at doses below the no-observed-adverse-effect level. Another study suggested that low-level BPA exposure could increase the risk of prostate cancer in both humans and animals later in life.

Exploring BPA Alternatives

Substitutes for BPA, such as bisphenol S (BPS) and diphenyl sulfone, have been introduced. However, these alternatives possess similar structures to BPA and therefore raise similar concerns regarding potential health hazards.

Research conducted on pregnant female mice exposed to low doses of BPA, BPS, diphenyl sulfone, or placebos found that those exposed to BPA or its alternatives experienced the same genetic damage that could lead to miscarriage or reduced sperm count.

BPA’s Environmental Impact

BPA poses significant environmental risks, particularly to the endocrine systems of wildlife. Studies have detected BPA pollution in water and surface soil samples from regions with extensive plastic-producing industries, such as certain cities in China. This is concerning as China is the world’s largest producer of plastic, and approximately 27 million BPA-containing plastic products are manufactured globally each year.

Plastic pollution Bisphenol A (BPA)
Plastic pollution

Rivers and lakes serve as major repositories for BPA and can affect aquatic vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, and birds. The harm caused to wildlife can have far-reaching consequences, impacting entire ecosystems.

Furthermore, BPA pollution extends beyond plastic industry areas and can be found in locations where BPA-containing plastic waste is disposed of, including wastewater treatment plants and landfill sites. As BPA-containing products reach the end of their life cycle, whether they are food containers, water bottles, or canned goods, there is a high probability that they will end up in the trash or the ocean. Landfill leachate, a highly toxic liquid byproduct, and liquid waste from paper mills have reported the highest concentrations of BPA, reaching up to 17 milligrams per liter.

Regulatory Measures and Concerns

While there are no federal bans on BPA outside of baby products, some states like Washington, Wisconsin, and Vermont have implemented their own restrictions or prohibitions on the sale of certain BPA-containing products. In 2015, California listed BPA as a reproductive toxicant under Prop. 65, requiring warning labels on consumer products exceeding the “safe harbor level” of BPA. In 2016, the European Union strengthened its limitations on BPA based on new scientific data, reclassifying it to a higher level of reprotoxic category and restricting its use in thermal paper.

The FDA currently considers approved uses of BPA in food containers and packaging to be safe. The agency emphasizes its extensive research and review of hundreds of studies on BPA’s safety. However, some studies suggest that the FDA may have underestimated the levels of BPA exposure significantly, with measurements potentially off by as much as 44 times.


Bisphenol A (BPA) has gained significant attention due to its widespread use and potential health and environmental risks. While the FDA maintains that BPA poses no significant risks at normal consumer exposure levels, the EPA suggests otherwise. Ongoing research continues to shed light on the effects of BPA on human health and the environment. As concerns grow, it is essential to explore alternative solutions and regulatory measures to minimize BPA exposure and mitigate

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